Human rights` situation in Russia is worse than in any other European country. Arbitrary detentions, kidnappings (including of foreign nationals), torture in custody or extradition to countries that use to torture, and lack of civilian democratic control over security sector, create a climate of fear. Most of the suspicious cases of assassinations of opposition politicians, journalists, NGO activists, dissident businesspeople, disobedient public officials or other perceived opponents of the regime, which had occurred during the last 16 years, were not explained and prosecuted. Numerous people have been arrested (and some convicted) for expressing their views on the Internet, on the political situation in the country, or on the military engagement abroad (in Ukraine or Syria), or on
world-view issues (such as for expressing atheism). Regarding death penalty, Russia is merely de facto abolitionist. Women are under-represented in politics. According to the latest Inter-Parliamentary Union`s world classification, Russia was ranked as 135th of 193 countries, with just 13.6% of women in the lower house of parliament. Aside of mere decriminalization of homosexuality as such, LGBT people enjoy almost no other protection against societal pressure or frivolous application of “anti-gay laws”. Russia did not join UN declarations on the protection of discrimination due to sexual orientation. Human rights` situation is even more alarming in the occupied and annexed Crimea, where local Tatars or other minorities are discriminated by the new Russian authorities, while civil liberties for all are more restricted than elsewhere in Russia. In Northern Caucasus, under the pretext of fighting terrorism, usual NGO activities are halted, human rights` monitors and reporters attacked and overall situation even hard to assess.