In theory, human rights are well respected in Japan. The constitution guarantees freedoms of assembly and association, and a number of active human rights, social welfare and environmental groups exist in the country. Citizens of all faiths can also worship freely. There are no restrictions on academic freedom. However, some aspects of human rights present causes for concern. For instance, Japan retains the death penalty and continues to impose it. In 2012, seven convicts were hanged (as of October). Although the Japanese Constitution prohibits unequal treatment based on race, creed, sex or other social statuses, descendants of feudal-era outcasts and the indigenous Ainu minority continue to have difficulty gaining equal access to housing and employment opportunities. Meanwhile,
women sometimes face discrimination in employment and sexual harassment on the job. But they hardly report incidents of abuses for fear of damaging family reputation and due to other social mores.